home processing download documents tutorial python tutorial gallery source about
 Python Tutorials (back to the list of tutorials)

Multi-Agent Algorithm: Interact Method (requires iGeo version 7.4.0 or higher)

     Define Interact Method

IAgent has another important method "interact(ArrayList< IDynamics >)". This method is also executed at every update cycle of iGeo and this method of all agents is executed before update() method. This method takes one input argument of ArrayList (a class of variable-length array in Java) of IDynamics, which is a superclass of IAgent. This input argument contains all existing agents inside iGeo system at the moment. This method provides functionality for an agent to interact with other agents by checking other agents' state to update itself or interfering other agents.

The below is a template to define an interact method.

add_library('igeo')

def setup() : 
    size(480, 360, IG.GL)
    agent = MyAgent()

class MyAgent(IAgent) : 

    def interact(self, agents) : 
        # definition of interact behavior

    def update(self) : 
        # definition of update behavior

You can write any code you want inside interact method to define the behavior of interaction but most of the time when you have only one agent class to interact, the code would look like the following template to have for-loop iteration to check all other agents.

add_library('igeo')

def setup() : 
    size(480, 360, IG.GL)
    agent = MyAgent()

class MyAgent(IAgent) : 

    def interact(self, agents) : 
        for agent in agents :  #check all existing agents
            if isinstance(agent, MyAgent) : #type check
                if agent is not self : #agents include this instance itself
                    # definition of interact behavior
    
    def update(self) : 
        # definition of update behavior

The interact method starts with the line " void interact(ArrayList< IDynamics > agents){ ". It has no return value and the variable name of input argument which contains all existing agents is "agents".
This for-loop on the first line is to iterate through all the existing agents in side the agents variable. In the for-loop, the number is counted up to agents.size(), which is total number of member inside the variable array.

for(int i=0; i < agents.size(); i++){

This if-condition on the second line is to check if the variable inside the variable-length array agents is an instance of MyAgent. agents.get(i) is to access the i-th member inside the array. The keyword "instanceof" is to check if the variable is an instance of the class MyAgent because the input argument agents could contain any type of agents.

if(agents.get(i) instanceof MyAgent){

The third line is to "cast" the variable of an unknown class into a variable of MyAgent class. The "casting" is a process to convert an instance of a superclass into that of subclass. Casting can be done by putting "(" + name of class + ")" in front of the variable. For more description about casting, please see this Java tutorial.

MyAgent agent = (MyAgent)agents.get(i);

Then on the fourth line it exclude the case the variable contained inside the variable-length array agents is the same instance with the one which is checking others right now. "this" refers to the currently executing instance itself.

if(agent!= this){


     Interact Method Example 1

The code below shows an example of an agent with an interact method.

add_library('igeo')

def setup() : 
    size(480, 360, IG.GL)
    IG.duration(120)
    agent = LineAgent(IVec(0,0,0), IVec(1,0,0))

class LineAgent(IAgent) : 
    length = 2
    clearance = 1.99 #less than length
    
    def __init__(self, pt, dir) : 
        self.pt1 = pt
        self.pt2 = pt.dup().add(dir.dup().len(LineAgent.length))
        self.isColliding = False
    
    def interact(self, agents) :
        if self.time() == 0 : #only in the first time
            for agent in agents : 
                if isinstance(agent, LineAgent) : 
                    if agent is not self : 
                        # checking clearance of end point
                        if agent.pt2.dist(self.pt2) < LineAgent.clearance : 
                            self.isColliding=True

    def update(self) : 
        if self.isColliding : 
            self.del()
        elif self.time() == 0 : #if not colliding
            ICurve(self.pt1, self.pt2).clr(0)
            dir = self.pt2.dif(self.pt1)
            
            if IRand.pct(40) : #bend 
                LineAgent(self.pt2, dir.dup().rot(PI/3))
            if IRand.pct(40) : #bend the other way
                LineAgent(self.pt2, dir.dup().rot(-PI/3))
            if IRand.pct(80) : #straight 
                LineAgent(self.pt2, dir.dup())

In this algorithm, the interact method is checking collision with any existing LineAgent by this if-condition.

if(lineAgent.pt2.dist(pt2) < clearance){

In the update method, if it finds any collision, i.e. the variable isColliding is true, it delete itself and doesn't create a line. Otherwise, it puts a line and creates 3 child agents randomly in the direction of 60 degrees (PI/3), -60 degrees and straight. This inteaction and update logics are described in the following diagram.

All of this collision check and geometry and child agents generation is only done once at the time frame of 0 by the if-condition "if(time == 0){" which appears on both of interact and update method. The variable "time" is an instance field of IAgent showing how many updating cycles have elapsed since the instance is created.

The below shows the same algorithm written with the longer definition of the interact method in case the speed of the execution matters.

add_library('igeo')

def setup() : 
    size(480, 360, IG.GL)
    IG.duration(120)
    agent = LineAgent(IVec(0,0,0), IVec(1,0,0))

class LineAgent(IAgent) : 
    length = 2
    clearance = 1.99 #less than length
    
    def __init__(self, pt, dir) : 
        self.pt1 = pt
        self.pt2 = pt.dup().add(dir.dup().len(LineAgent.length))
        self.isColliding = False
    
    def interact(self, agents) :
        if self.time() == 0 : #only in the first time
            for agent in agents : 
                if isinstance(agent, LineAgent) : 
                    if agent is not self : 
                        # checking clearance of end point
                        if agent.pt2.dist(self.pt2) < LineAgent.clearance : 
                            self.isColliding=True

    def update(self) : 
        if self.isColliding : 
            self.del()
        elif self.time() == 0 : #if not colliding
            ICurve(self.pt1, self.pt2).clr(0)
            dir = self.pt2.dif(self.pt1)
            
            if IRand.pct(40) : #bend 
                LineAgent(self.pt2, dir.dup().rot(PI/3))
            if IRand.pct(40) : #bend the other way
                LineAgent(self.pt2, dir.dup().rot(-PI/3))
            if IRand.pct(80) : #straight 
                LineAgent(self.pt2, dir.dup())


     Interact Method Example 2

Another code is shown below which is the same line agent code with the previous code but the branching angle is randomized.

Please note that the range of random angle of branching is from PI/3 to PI/3*2 because if the angle is less than PI/3, the end point would collide with straight member. Or if the angle is more than PI/3*2, it would collide with the parent line when you have LineAgent.length and LineAgent.clearance close. LineAgent.clearance cannot be larger than LineAgent.length because an agent would judge that the line always collides with the parent line.

add_library('igeo')

def setup() : 
    size(480, 360, IG.GL)
    IG.duration(250)
    agent = LineAgent(IVec(0,0,0), IVec(1,0,0))

class LineAgent(IAgent) : 
    length = 2
    clearance = 1.99 #less than length
    
    def __init__(self, pt, dir) : 
        self.pt1 = pt
        self.pt2 = pt.dup().add(dir.dup().len(LineAgent.length))
        self.isColliding = False
    
    def interact(self, agents) :
        if self.time() == 0 : #only in the first time
            for agent in agents : 
                if isinstance(agent, LineAgent) : 
                    if agent is not self : 
                        # checking clearance of end point
                        if agent.pt2.dist(self.pt2) < LineAgent.clearance : 
                            self.isColliding=True

    def update(self) : 
        if self.isColliding : 
            self.del()
        elif self.time() == 0 : #if not colliding
            ICurve(self.pt1, self.pt2).clr(0)
            dir = self.pt2.dif(self.pt1)
            
            if IRand.pct(40) : #bend 
                LineAgent(self.pt2, dir.dup().rot(IRand.get(PI/3,PI/3*2)))
            if IRand.pct(40) : #bend the other way
                LineAgent(self.pt2, dir.dup().rot(-IRand.get(PI/3,PI/3*2)))
            if IRand.pct(80) : #straight 
                LineAgent(self.pt2, dir.dup())


     Interact Method Example 3

The following code is the 3 dimensional version of the last code. Tha algorithm is changed only inside update() method replacing the rotation axis from z axis to a random direction vector.

add_library('igeo')

def setup() : 
    size(480, 360, IG.GL)
    IG.duration(150)
    agent = LineAgent(IVec(0,0,0), IVec(1,0,0))

class LineAgent(IAgent) : 
    length = 2
    clearance = 1.99 #less than length
    
    def __init__(self, pt, dir) : 
        self.pt1 = pt
        self.pt2 = pt.dup().add(dir.dup().len(LineAgent.length))
        self.isColliding = False
    
    def interact(self, agents) :
        if self.time() == 0 : #only in the first time
            for agent in agents : 
                if isinstance(agent, LineAgent) : 
                    if agent is not self : 
                        # checking clearance of end point
                        if agent.pt2.dist(self.pt2) < LineAgent.clearance : 
                            self.isColliding=True

    def update(self) : 
        if self.isColliding : 
            self.del()
        elif self.time() == 0 : #if not colliding
            ICurve(self.pt1, self.pt2).clr(0)
            dir = self.pt2.dif(self.pt1)
            #rotation axis with random direction
            axis = IRand.pt(-1,1).len(1)
            
            if IRand.pct(50) : #bend 
                LineAgent(self.pt2, dir.dup().rot(axis,IRand.get(PI/3,PI/3*2)))
            if IRand.pct(50) : #bend the other way
                LineAgent(self.pt2, dir.dup().rot(axis,-IRand.get(PI/3,PI/3*2)))
            if IRand.pct(80) : #straight 
                LineAgent(self.pt2, dir.dup())


     Interact Method Example 4

This example below shows an algorithm to solve overlap of spheres. The interact method checks all other spheres if any of them has overlap with the current sphere and if it does, the current sphere moves itself to the location where it just touches the other sphere.

add_library('igeo')

def setup() : 
  size(480,360,IG.GL)
  IG.duration(400)
  MySphereAgent(IRand.pt(-10,10),IRand.get(5,20))
  MySphereAgent(IRand.pt(-10,10),IRand.get(5,20))
  IG.fill()

class MySphereAgent(IAgent) : 
    
    def __init__(self, p, rad) : 
        self.pos = p
        self.radius = rad
        self.changed = True
        self.sphere = None
    
    def interact(self, agents) : 
        for agent in agents : 
            if isinstance(agent, MySphereAgent) : 
                if agent is not self : 
                    dist = agent.pos.dist(self.pos)
                    if dist < self.radius + agent.radius : 
                        dif = self.pos.dif(agent.pos)
                        #amount of overlap is this radius plus other radius minus distance between two centers
                        dif.len(self.radius+agent.radius-dist)
                        self.pos.add(dif) #only this agent is moved, not others
                        self.changed=True #state variable is updated
    
    def update(self) : 
        if self.changed :
            # update sphere
            if self.sphere is not None :  
                self.sphere.del() #shpere is null first
            self.sphere = ISphere(self.pos, self.radius).clr(self.clr())
            self.changed=False
        if self.time() == 5 : #delayed to create the next agent til time==5
            # next agent's direction
            dir = IRand.pt(-1, 1)
            nextRadius = IRand.get(5, 20)
            # amount of move is the current radius + the next one
            dir.len(self.radius+nextRadius)
            MySphereAgent(self.pos.cp(dir),nextRadius).clr(IRandom.clr())


     Interact Method Example 5

The below shows another example of use of interact method. This interact method checks collision with other rectangles and if it collides on the right side or top side (in y direction) it shrinks the size. The left side and bottom side is not checked but other agent will check when it's on on the left or the bottom. Because the agent is checking the collision all the time, it's not deleted at the update method unless the shrunk size gets too small.

add_library('igeo')

def setup() : 
    size(480, 360, IG.GL)
    IConfig.syncDrawAndDynamics = True #for errors by heavier dynamics than drawing
    IG.duration(500)
    num=20
    for i in range(num) : 
        RectAgent(IRand.pt(-100,-100,0,100,100, 0),20,20).clr(IRand.clr())

class RectAgent(IAgent) :
    gap = 1.0
    minSize = 1.0
    maxSize = 20.0
    
    def __init__(self, pt, w, h) : 
        self.pos = pt
        self.width = w
        self.height = h
        self.anyChange = True
        self.rect = None 
  

    def interact(self, agents) : 
        for agent in agents : 
            # shrink the size when it collides with others.
            if isinstance(agent, RectAgent) : 
                if agent is not self : 
                    # is it overlapping?
                    if agent.pos.x()+agent.width+RectAgent.gap > self.pos.x() and \
                       agent.pos.x() < self.pos.x()+self.width+RectAgent.gap and \
                       agent.pos.y()+agent.height+RectAgent.gap > self.pos.y() and \
                       agent.pos.y() < self.pos.y()+self.height+RectAgent.gap : 
                        # both x and y overlapping?
                        if agent.pos.x() >= self.pos.x() and agent.pos.y() >= self.pos.y() :
                            if agent.pos.x() - self.pos.x() > agent.pos.y() - self.pos.y() :
                                self.width = agent.pos.x() - self.pos.x() - RectAgent.gap
                            else : 
                                self.height = agent.pos.y() - self.pos.y() - agent.gap
                            self.anyChange = True
                        # x is right of pos
                        elif agent.pos.x() > self.pos.x() : 
                            self.width = agent.pos.x() - self.pos.x() - RectAgent.gap
                            self.anyChange = True
                        # y is top of pos
                        elif agent.pos.y() > self.pos.y() : 
                            self.height = agent.pos.y() - self.pos.y() - RectAgent.gap
                            self.anyChange = True
    
    def update(self) :
        # update geometry only when the size changes
        if self.anyChange : 
            if self.rect is not None : 
                self.rect.del()
            if self.width >= RectAgent.minSize and self.height >= RectAgent.minSize : 
                self.rect = IG.plane(self.pos, self.width, self.height).clr(self.clr())
            # if too small, removed
            else : 
                self.del()
            self.anyChange=False
        if self.time() == 0 :
            RectAgent(self.pos.cp(IRand.pt(-10,-10, 0,10,10, 0)), \
                      IRand.get(RectAgent.minSize,RectAgent.maxSize), \
                      IRand.get(RectAgent.minSize,RectAgent.maxSize)).clr(self.clr())


     Interact Method Example 6

The following code implements a simple cellular automaton algorithm using the interact method to define the state transition rules. This is one dimensional array of cellular automata and automata move down creating boxes if the state is 1 and also creating new automata on the side. For more information about cellular automata algorithm, please see the wikipedia page of cellular automaton.

add_library('igeo')

def setup() : 
    size(480, 360, IG.GL)
    IG.duration(100)
    MyAutomaton(IVec(0, 0, 0))


class MyAutomaton(IAgent) : 
    size = 10

    def __init__(self, p) :
        self.pos = p
        self.state = 1
        self.leftAutomaton=None
        self.rightAutomaton=None
        self.lstate = 0
        self.rstate = 0

    def interact(self, agents) : 
        #searching left and right automaton
        #if not found leftState & rightState are zero
        for agent in agents :
            if isinstance(agent, MyAutomaton) :
                if agent is not self :
                    if agent.pos.eqX(self.pos.dup().sub(self.size,0,0)) :
                        self.leftAutomaton = agent
                        self.lstate = agent.state
                    elif agent.pos.eqX(self.pos.dup().add(self.size,0,0)) : 
                        self.rightAutomaton = agent
                        self.rstate = agent.state

    def update(self) :
        # when state==1, put a box, otherwise no box
        if self.state == 1 : 
            IBox(self.pos.dup(), self.size, self.size, self.size).clr(0)
        # update state with a state transition table
        if self.lstate==0 and self.state==0 and self.rstate==0 : 
            self.state = 0
        elif self.lstate==0 and self.state==0 and self.rstate==1 :
            self.state = 1
        elif self.lstate==0 and self.state==1 and self.rstate==0 :
            self.state = 1
        elif self.lstate==0 and self.state==1 and self.rstate==1 :
            self.state = 1 
        elif self.lstate==1 and self.state==0 and self.rstate==0 :
            self.state = 1 
        elif self.lstate==1 and self.state==0 and self.rstate==1 :
            self.state = 0 
        elif self.lstate==1 and self.state==1 and self.rstate==0 : 
            self.state = 0 
        elif self.lstate==1 and self.state==1 and self.rstate==1 :
            self.state = 0 
        #move down
        self.pos.add(0,-self.size,0)
        #new automaton
        if self.leftAutomaton is None :
            MyAutomaton(self.pos.dup().sub(self.size,0,0))
        if self.rightAutomaton is None : 
            MyAutomaton(self.pos.dup().add(self.size,0,0))


     Interact Method Example 7

The following code shows an example of branching agents with a collision detection algorithm using intersection of line segments.

add_library('igeo')

def setup() :
    size(480, 360, IG.GL)
    IG.duration(250)
    LineAgent(IVec(0,0,0), IVec(0,1,0)).clr(0)

class LineAgent(IAgent) : 
    
    def __init__(self, pt, dir) : 
        self.pt1 = pt
        self.pt2 = pt.cp(dir)
        self.isColliding = False

    def interact(self, agents) : 
        if self.time() == 0 : #only in the first time
            for agent in agents :
                if isinstance(agent, LineAgent) : 
                    if agent is not self :
                        if not agent.isColliding and not self.isColliding :
                            intxn = IVec.intersectSegment(self.pt1,self.pt2,agent.pt1,agent.pt2)
                            if intxn is not None : #intersection exists
                                if not intxn.eq(self.pt1) : #not parent agent
                                    self.isColliding = True
  
    def update(self) : 
        if self.isColliding :
            self.del()
        elif self.time() == 0 : #if not colliding
            ICurve(self.pt1,self.pt2).clr(self.clr())
            dir = self.pt2.dif(self.pt1)
            
            r = self.red()+IRand.get(0,0.01)
            g = self.green()+IRand.get(0,0.01)
            b = self.blue()+IRand.get(0,0.01)
            
            if IRand.pct(40) : #bend
                LineAgent(self.pt2, dir.dup().rot(IRand.get(0,PI/20))).clr(r,g,b)
            if IRand.pct(40) : #bend the other way
                LineAgent(self.pt2, dir.dup().rot(-IRand.get(0,PI/20))).clr(r,g,b)
            if IRand.pct(40) :  #straight 
                LineAgent(self.pt2, dir.dup()).clr(r,g,b)

An intersection of two line segments can be calculated by the following method.

IVec.intersectSegment(line1Pt1, line1Pt2, line2Pt1, line2Pt2);

If two line segments intersect, it returns one vector (IVec) as the location of intersection. If not, it returns a null value. Note that there is another intersect method for infinite lines.

IVec.intersect(line1Pt1, line1Pt2, line2Pt1, line2Pt2);

Another note is that those two intersection methods are intersection of lines in 3D space and if they are not exactly intersecting in 3D within the tolerance (defined by IConfig.tolerance), it returns a null value. If you care about intersections only on 2D, you can use intersection methods in IVec2 class. It can be slightly faster to run.

IVec2.intersectSegment(line1Pt1, line1Pt2, line2Pt1, line2Pt2);

All input arguments and a return value are instances of IVec2, not IVec. To apply this 2D intersection in the previous code, you need to convert IVec to IVec2 by to2d() method as following. To convert IVec2 to IVec, you can use to3d() method.

add_library('igeo')

def setup() : 
    size(480, 360, IG.GL)
    IG.duration(250)
    LineAgent(IVec(0,0,0), IVec(0,1,0)).clr(0)


class LineAgent(IAgent) : 
    
    def __init__(self, pt, dir) :
        self.pt1 = pt
        self.pt2 = pt.cp(dir)
        self.isColliding=False

    def interact(self, agents) : 
        if self.time() == 0 :  #only in the first time
            for agent in agents : 
                if isinstance(agent, LineAgent) :
                    if agent is not self :
                        if not agent.isColliding and not self.isColliding :
                            intxn = IVec2.intersectSegment\
                                    (self.pt1.to2d(), \
                                     self.pt2.to2d(), \
                                     agent.pt1.to2d(),\
                                     agent.pt2.to2d())
                            if intxn is not None : #intersection exists
                                if not intxn.eq(self.pt1.to2d()) : #not parent agent
                                    self.isColliding = True
  
    def update(self) :
        if self.isColliding : 
            self.del()
        elif self.time() == 0 : #if not colliding
            ICurve(self.pt1,self.pt2).clr(self.clr())
            dir = self.pt2.dif(self.pt1)
            
            r = self.red()+IRand.get(0,0.01)
            g = self.green()+IRand.get(0,0.01)
            b = self.blue()+IRand.get(0,0.01)
            
            if IRand.pct(40) : #bend
                LineAgent(self.pt2, dir.dup().rot(IRand.get(0,PI/20))).clr(r,g,b)
            if IRand.pct(40) : #bend the other way
                LineAgent(self.pt2, dir.dup().rot(-IRand.get(0,PI/20))).clr(r,g,b)
            if IRandom.pct(40) : #straight 
                LineAgent(self.pt2, dir.dup()).clr(r,g,b)


(back to the list of tutorials)

HOME
FOR PROCESSING
DOWNLOAD
DOCUMENTS
TUTORIALS (Java / Python)
GALLERY
SOURCE CODE(GitHub)
ABOUT